learn linux programming
ethical hacking

Learn Linux programmming Language for free For beginners

Learn Linux programming Language -step by step

Introduction Of Hacking

There are many definition for hackers . In the early 1990s the world hacker was used too describe a great programmer,someone who was able to build complex logic.A hackers is someone  who discovers news ways for hacking into a system be it a computer system or a programmable logic controller someone who is capable of hacking into banks stealing  passwords credit cards or other information etc..


Learn -Linux-Programmming


In this article we will learn  Linux


  • 1:- Linux basics
  • 2- major Linux operating system
  • 3:-file structure inside of Linux
  • 4:-file permission in Linux
  • 5:-Linux advance /special permission
  • 6:-most common and important command
  • 7:- Linux scheduler  (Cr o n job)
  • 1:- Linux basics :- In order to became a good ethical hackers or penetration tester you want be able to know Linux .Linux is very helpful for ethical hacking and penetration testing because its is compatible with a wide variety of tools and software’s  where ever other operating system like mac windows support  less software’s  and tools .


Most common question ?that  people are asking from me is that  which Linux distro should  I use  . There are various types of Linux  distros such as knoppix backtrack fedora and Ubuntu also . my suggestion is that all the Linux  distros are worked in same manner .but  I suggest you to use backtrack . because backtrack has already loads with tons of software and tools


  6  Major Linux Operating systems :-

  • 1:- backtrack Linux : use for penetration testing
  • 2: Debi an  Linux :  Only using for open source software’s
  • 3: Solaris : Used in many commercial environments
  • 4:- Mac Os:-  Used in only apple computers
  • 5:- Red hat Linux : uses for administration purposes
  • 6:- Ubuntu Linux :- only for personal uses


Learn -Linux-Programmming


Structure inside in Linux

There are certain  Expectations  in Linux file system

  • Directories :-  Files that are lists of other files
  • Special file:- mechanism used for input or output ../dev  are called special files
  • Pipes :- Pipe  is more or less socket they form a way to process and communicate with each other with-out using network socket
  • Links :- A system to make file or directory visible in multiplied parts of the system
  • Sockets :- A similar file type ,similar to TCP  / IP  providing inter process network

Learn linux command

Different types of  file list:-

             symbol                    Meaning

               –                               regular file

           d                                 Directory

            I                                       Link

            c                                  special file

           s                                   socket

           p                                   named pipe

            b                                  block device

             s                                   socket

            p                                   name pipe

           b                                    block device

Linux file permission:-

As you all know that there are already a lot if good security in Linux based system,upon the need for proper permission.Wrong file permission may open a door for attacker in your system.

Group permission:-

Owner:- The owner permission apply only the  owner of the file directory they will not get permission  of the other user

Group:- The group permission may apply only the group  that may assigned to the file or a directory

All user-other:- The all user gave permission to the other user on the  system

Each file or directory has three main permission types:-

  • Read
  • Write
  • Execute

What is read :- read permission refer to user to read the contents of the file

what is write:- write permission refer to user to write to modify file or directory

what is execute:-  The execute permission affects a user to execute a file or view the contents of a directory

Linux Advance /special permission

L—-   The file or a directory is a symbolic link

s—-   This indicated the setuid/sergid permission Represented in the read portion of the owner of the group permission

t—-  This indicates the sticky bit permission represented in the executable portion of the all user permission

I—-    chatter making mostly used by devices

There are two more mostly used by devices

c –  character device

b—block device (I.e hdd)

Let ‘go  go through some examples :-

Linux permission

root@net:-# ln –s new /root/link

root@net: -#ls-al

lrwxrwxrwx l ali  ali 3 mar 18 08:09 –>new

link is created for a file name called new (link is symbolically for file name new )


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Most common and important command :-

  • ls: list directory contents
  • cd: changes directories
  • rm: remove files or directories
  • chmod: change file mode bits, from read to write and vise versa
  • chown: change ownership of a file
  • chgrp: change group ownership
  • screen: screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation, create background process with terminal emulator.
  • ssh: secure shell for remote connection man: manual/help
  • pwd: print name of current/working directory. cd..: moves up one directory
  • mkdir: create a new directory
  • rmdir: remove director locate: find a file with in directory or system


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Linux scheduler (cron job)

# * * * * * command to execute

# ┬ ┬ ┬ ┬ ┬

# │ │ │ │ │

# │ │ │ │ │

# │ │ │ │ └───── day of week (0–6) (0–6 are Sunday to Saturday, or use names; 0 is Sunday)

# │ │ │ └────────── month (1–12)

# │ │ └─────────────── day of month (1–31)

# │ └──────────────────── hour (0–23)

# └───────────────────────── min (0–59) It’s pretty simple and easy to understand; aforementioned hierarchy is self-explanatory.

First * represent min 0-59 Second * represent hour 0-23 Third * represent day of month 1-31 Forth * represent month 1-12 Fifth * represent day of week 0-6

I hope u all read this article :–

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